Kidney stone in adults


                                       Kidney stone in Adults

Kidney is very vital organ of a human body which act as a filter for blood removing all waste products from body through urine. It also regulate electrolyte levels in body. Kidney stone also known as urinary stone are crystal aggregation formed in kidneys from dietary supplements. Kidney stones are classified depending upon their location, in kidney (nephrolithiasis), ureter (ureterolithiasis), or bladder (cystolithiasis) and are made up of calcium, minerals and acid salts.They can vary in size and shapes. Their presence is more common in men than in women. Overweight and obese person are more likely to get kidney stone than those having normal weight. According to studies, in United States 8.8 percentage of population or one in eleven person suffer from kidney stones.


The main cause of kidney stone formation is lack of water in the body concentrating the urine therefore it is always recommended to drink eight glasses of water per day. When there is less of water to dilute uric acidic, the pH level within kidney falls and it becomes acidic leading to formation of kidney stones. Other factors include high dietary intake of animal protein, sodium, refined sugars.People who are at higher risk of developing kidney stones are-

Hypercalciuria– is a condition that runs in the families where urine contains high level of calcium

Poly cystic kidney disease – is an inherited disorder where clusters of cysts develop in kidneys

Renaltubular acidosis – a disease that occurs when kidney fails to excrete acids into urine which causes person blood to remain too acidic

Cystinuria –a condition in which urine contain high level of amino acid urine

Hyperoxaluria– a condition in which urine contain large amount of oxalate

Gout – a disorder that leads to painful inflammation of joints


You may have no symptoms until the stone moves down the urethra where it blocks the urine passing from kidney. Its major symptoms include strong abdominal pain, abnormal urine colour, and blood in urine, fever nausea, chills and vomiting.

Diagnosis of kidney stones requires complete health check-up of patients

Blood test for calcium, phosphorus, uric acid and electrolytes

Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine to detect kidney functioning

Urinalysis to check for crystals, bacteria, blood and white cells


Examination of passed stone


Dietary measures- As diet has profound influence in development of kidney stone, it is very important to take care of your food intake to reduce the risk of kidney stone. Increase fluid intake by drinking good amount of water and juices mainly lemonade and orange juices, restrict animal protein intake, more amount of sodium and Vitamin C.

Urine Alkalinisation – In this process the stone is dissolved by increasing the urine pH using acetazolamide, sodium bicarbonate, potassium citrate.

Use of allopurinol – Allopurinol interfere with the production of uric acid in the liver. It is mainly used with the people having calcium stones to prevent there occurrence of stone.

If kidney stone is large in size (6-7mm) or larger it should be treated by following procedure.

Extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL)

Ureteroscopic surgery

Percutaneousnephrolithotomy (PCNL)


Hydration to prevent kidney stone

Properhydration of body is therefore very important preventive measure in case of Kidney stone. It is always recommended to drink 6-8 glasses of water for an adult. Water can be also substituted with other drinks like lemon-lime soda and other fruit juices. And if you encounter any of the above symptoms is always recommended to consult your doctor for proper treatment of Kidney stones.



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