Frequent urination is the urge to pass urine more as compare to normal times. Polyuria is a medical term for frequent urination problem which is defined as a condition for excessive or abnormally large production or passage of urine. The normal number of times varies with age. 8 to 14 times is considered normal in young children which decrease to 6 to 12 in older children and 4 to 6 is considered typical in teenagers. Frequent need to urinate at night is called Nocturia.
Common causes of frequent urination (polyuria)
Urinary tract infection- In urinary tract infection frequent urination is accompanied usually with fever, pain and discomfort in abdomen.
Caffeinated beverages or large amount of fluid intake –Drinking too much of water or caffeinated beverages mostly at night can lead to frequent urination at night.
Prostrate problems – Prostate gland enlargement causes increase in urge to urinate more.
Diabetes- Frequent urination is often early symptoms of type 1 and type 2 diabetes as the body tries to remove unused sugar (glucose) from the body. Diabetes can also affect the nerve that control the bladder causing frequent urination and difficulty in controlling bladder.
Artificial sweeteners and Alcohol consumption-Alcohol,caffeine and other artificial sweeteners can act as diuretics (substances that promote production of urine) resulting in more urination.
Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) such as herpes, chlamydia and gonorrhoea are also accompanied with symptoms of frequent urination.
Pregnancy- During pregnancy hormonal changes and growing uterus puts pressure on bladder causing frequent urination.
Stress is also a common cause of polyuria.
Stroke or other neurological diseases – Damage to nerve which are connected to bladder can lead to problem with bladder function including frequent and urgent urge to urinate.
Radiation treatment affecting the pelvic area of body can also lead to frequent urination problem.
Symptoms of polyuria
Frequency of urination increases which is urinating more than eight times a day and more than once or twice at night
Urgency – the uncomfortable feeling which is due to more pressure on bladder
Urinary incontinence – which is described as inability to control the flow of urine leading to either continuous or intermittent leakage of urine
Dysuria – is a feeling of pain, burning and discomfort upon urination. This is a sign of urinary tract infection
Pollakiuria – is described as excessive frequent urination due to partial obstruction which happens mainly in prostatic enlargement
Nocturia – is a medical term for excessive urination at night
Hematuria – is described as a presence of blood in the urine. This will cause blood to appear dark in colour than usual
As there are number of reasons for frequent urination problem in adults, it is important to consult your doctor (urologist) immediately.Proper diet and avoiding excess fluids and food that act as diuretics are primary preventive measures taken at home. Avoid food that irritate your bladder such as alcohol, caffeinated beverages, spicy food, and artificial sweeteners.Avoid excessive drinking of fluid at night to prevent nocturia and disturbance in sleep. Medical treatment for polyuria depends completely on their cause such as in urinary tract infection, antibiotics are prescribed and drinking of appropriate fluid is recommended. Similarly in diabetes as increase of blood sugar leads to frequent urination, management of sugar level is primary concern. Hence proper self-care and medication can reduce or eliminate the symptoms of frequent urination.