According to the reports collected by U.S Department of Health and Human Services, it was found more than 10 times as many as Americans lost their lives prematurely due to smoking. Cigarette smoking has caused more than 480,000 deaths each year in the United State that comes to around almost one in five deaths. It was also reported that about 80% of all deaths from chronic obstruction pulmonary disease (COPD) and 90% of all lung disorders both in men and women are caused by smoking. Smoking is one of the habit which affect almost each and every part of body thus having effect on entire body system. Here are the harmful effects of smoking on different body systems.
Effect of smoking on the Cardiovascular System
Smoking is a major cause of heart problems worldwide where about 20% of deaths occurs due to heart stroke are caused by smoking addiction. Studies have proved that one who smokes around 5 or more cigarettes are prone to early signs of cardiovascular syndromes. Continuous smoking starts damaging the blood vessel and thicken them which further result in faster heart beat, heart clot and fluctuation in blood pressure. Clots which are formed due to presence of nicotine in blood prevent sufficient amount of blood supply to heart, brain and other parts of body resulting eventually in heart stroke. Not only smokers but non-smokers (passive smoke or second-hand smoke) also have high risk of developing coronary heart problems when they get exposed to environmental tobacco smoke, especially children.
Effect of smoking on the Respiratory System
Another dangerous effect of smoking is that it affect the entire lung organ including its every structure and functioning. It decreases the immunity power of lung, making it prone to various lung diseases and lung disorders such as chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). Studies have shown smokers die 12 to 13 more due to COPD than non-smokers. Chronic bronchitis and emphysema are the two forms of COPD, where chronic bronchitis are characterised by inflammation of bronchi (large air pathways), and by mucus formation whereas in emphysema lungs alveoli (air sacs) are affected resulting in difficulty in breathing, more coughing, fatigue, weight loss, depression and heart problems. As mentioned earlier, smoking decreases the total immunity of lung system which increases the risk of viral attack on upper respiratory (nose and pharynx) and bacterial on lower respiratory part (larynx). Both this infections can lead to acute bronchitis problems, bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Second hand smoke can also cause discomfort in chest, breathing uneasiness, mainly in children and infants exposed continuously to nicotine fumes.
Smoking affects Blood circulation
The toxic chemicals present in cigarette enters your blood system and damages your blood cells causing abnormal uncontrolled growth which leads to blood cancer. It makes your blood thicker which result in increased chance of clot formation. It causes narrowing of your arteries, reducing sufficient amount of oxygen supply to heart, brain and other organs of the body. This in turn result in increase of blood pressure and heart beat which makes heart weak.
Smoking affects Oral Health
Smoking and use of tobacco are mainly responsible for affecting the overall oral health and are linked with various dental problems. The symptoms varies from mild like tooth discolouration, bad breath, cavities formation to severe conditions such as inflammation in salivary gland, less bone density in jaw, and increased risk of gum diseases. Tooth ache and tooth infection are the common signs of smoking which ultimately leads to tooth removal.
Effect of smoking on Pregnancy and Child birth
Women smokers are more prone to complications and problems during conception and pregnancy as compared to non-smokers. Maternal smoking can lead to miscarriage, stillbirth or premature birth. It also significantly affects the child’s health such as low birth weight, being overweight in some cases, development of diabetes, heart stroke, high blood pressure and other heart problems. Paternal too can have adverse effect on fetus growth if the mother is exposed to second-hand smoke continuously.
Effect of smoking on Reproductive System and Fertility
Smoking affect reproductive system and various reproductive organs of both in men and women. In men it is the main culprit for developing fertility problems and impotency (erectile dysfunction) and lower sperm count. Females who are tobacco smokers experience menstrual cycle abnormalities, absence of menstruation, reduced fertility and early onset of menopause cycle. Smoking can also lead to cervical and breast cancer in women who smoke regularly
Effect of smoking on entire body organs causing Cancer
The most dangerous effect of smoking on body is the number of cancers that it can cause in our body. Smokers are mainly prone to this abnormal cell formation as nicotine fumes are found to be the major culprit in damaging and mutating genes in tissues and cells. Smoking can cause cancer to almost every part of human body making you terribly weak and helpless. The list of organs includes: lungs, liver, kidney, urethra, colon, rectum, cervix, bladder, blood, esophagus, orophagus (throat, tongue, soft palate, and tonsils), stomach, pancreas and bone marrow. It is also found to attack breasts, gastrointestinal, urinary and reproductive system too, especially more in females causing cancers of these organs. Among the all, lung cancer is the most common form of cancer caused by smoking.
Thus from the above points it is clear that smoking has potential to affect almost each and every part of human body, but you should also remember that most of the effects of smoking are reversible. By avoiding or quitting smoking and taking proper medication on time can reduce the risk of occurring these dreadful diseases and also from dangerous effects such as death.