Type II diabetes, once called non-insulin-dependent diabetes, is the most common form of diabetes. Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease characterized by high level of sugar (glucose) in the blood (hyperglycemia).
By definition: Type II Diabetes is defined as having a blood glucose level >= 126 mg/dL after an overnight fast (not eating anything) or by having a non-fasting glucose level >= 200 mg/dL along with symptoms of diabetes or a glucose level >= 200 mg/dL on a 2-hour glucose tolerance test or an A1C >= 6.5%.
Diabetes must be confirmed by meeting at least two of these test criteria, or by repeating confirmation of one of these tests on a different day.
There is a discrepancy in insulin utilization by pancreas or lost ability for insulin recognition by fat, liver, and muscle cells in body leads to Type-II Diabetes. Accumulation of glucose in blood in cells, makes body cells dysfunctional, this is known as insulin resistance. Higher glucose levels damages nerves, and small blood vessels in eyes, kidneys and heart leading to arthero-sclerosis, and hardening of arteries causing heart attack or stroke. Built up levels of blood sugar increases in urination in patients leading to dehydration. Complication in Type II Diabetes may lead to insulin hyperosmolar nonketotic diabetic coma known as Diabetic coma.
Common symptoms of Diabetes include increased thirst (polydispia), increased urination (polyuria), increased hunger (polyphagia), Dry mouth sensation, Nausea and vomiting, Nausea & vomiting, blurred vision, tingling sensation in hands and feet, and sore skin (ulcer) formation.
Risk of Type II Diabetes increases with age (higher at age>45), obesity, family history of diabetes, low HDL cholesterol count or high triglycerides levels, high blood pressure (hypertension).
Complications in Type II Diabetes lead to diabetic retinopathy, Diabetic Neuropathy, kidney damage, poor blood circulation and nerve damage, heart ailments and stroke.
Type 2 diabetes, is diagnosed by presence of high blood glucose levels in your blood during a random fasting blood test (Diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL at two separate check-ups), or through 2-hour glucose tolerance test (Diabetes is diagnosed if the glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL) or hemoglobin A1c (Diabetes is diagnosed if the test result is 6.5% or higher) or presence of glucose or ketones in your urine.
Your diabetologist may treat you with a single drug therapy or a multiple drug treatment based upon your medical health and prognosis. Common category of drugs used include: Biguanides Thiazolidinediones, DPP IV inhibitor, Sulfonylureas, Meglitinides, Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors administered orally or through injection.
Once diagnosed with type II diabetes, you need to take health-check up once in every three months with your doctor. Discuss with your physician to learn skills to test and record glucose levels, dietary recommendations and diet plan, recognition and treatment of low and high blood pressure and weight management. Discuss with doctor about preventing and treating skin breakdown, cracks and callus. An EKG should also be obtained to complete medical record.
Preventive care in Type II diabetes involves Diabetic screening in overweight children aged 10 or higher every two years; overweight individuals with BMI greater than 25, and adults over 45 years of age, every three years.
Diabetic patients should take a series of diagnostic tests that includes urine testing (performed every year) to look for kidney damage along with microalbuminuria and creatinine blood test (kidney function test) to check proper kidney functioning. Any incident of persistent leg or feet swelling may be a symptom of kidney disease and should be reported to your health care provider. These test help you and your doctor monitor your diabetes and prevent problems.
Diabetic patient should seek immediate medical attention in case of Chest pain or pressure, Seizure, Shortness of breath and Fainting or unconsciousness
Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes - type 2; Adult-onset diabetes