Migraine is recurrent headache accompanied by symptoms abrupt headaches like thunderclap, nausea, vomiting, distorted vision & sensitivity to light, sound & smells and aura (blind spots, colored spots, a feeling of spinning (vertigo), tunnel vision, temporary blindness, sparkles or stars, zigzag lines flashing lights before the eyes, numbness or tingling, dizziness and weakness).
Brain chemicals like serotonin concentration decrease during migraine attack that initiates trigeminal system in brain to release neuropeptide. Neuropeptide are systematically transferred to brain’s outer covering (meninges). This interaction gives rise to pain sensation in head known as migraine.
Common Migraine or Hemicrania Simplex.
Classic or Classical Migraine or Focal Migraine or Ophthalmic Migraine or Hemiparasthetic Migraine or Aphasic Migraine or Migraine Accompagnee or Complicated Migraine.
1. Retinal Migraine.
2. Abdominal Migraine.
3. Menstrual Migraine.
4. Status Migrainosus.
A migraine differs from a normal headache in having clearly defined stages—
Premonitory Stage (Constipation, Irritability, Depression, Food cravings, Neck stiffness, Hyperactivity and Uncontrollable yawning) (lasting 1 to 24 hours)
Aura Stage (Visual phenomena, bright spots or flashes of light, various shapes, Pins and needles sensations in an arm or leg, Vision loss, Speech or language problems (aphasia)) (lasting 5 to 60 minutes)
Main Attack Stage (Pain on one side or both sides of your head, Nausea and vomiting, Blurred vision, a pulsating or throbbing pain, Lightheadedness & fainting and sensitivity to light and sounds) (lasting 4 to 72 hours)
Resolution and Recovery Stage or Postdrome Stage (feeling drained or washed out).
Commonly known trigger to migraine include lack of sleep, lack of food, stress, alcohol, hormonal changes in women and the environment.
Migraine complications can lead to abdominal pain, bleeding, ulcers and other complications such as medication-overuse headaches and serotonin syndrome (excess uptake of migraine medications such as triptans and SSRIs & SNRIs)
There is no specific test for the diagnosis of migraine. A proper discussion of your medical history enables your doctor to rule out other reasons the attacks. A confirmed diagnosis of migraine and appropriate treatment from occurring and help you to control the other instances of attacks more effectively.
You should consult a doctor if you have moderate-to-severe headache that interferes with your daily routine or suffer from three headaches of different severity per day or uptake migraine painkillers frequently or your present headache/migraine medication does not provide relief or you suffer from a prolonged aura. Maintaining a proper a migraine dairy to note your activities 6-8 hours before the start of migraine pain, when the head pains started or how often head-pain happened or duration of migraine attack or description of pain throbbing/piercing can help your doctor in administering proper care to your medical condition.
Migraine medications are either prophylactic (prevent getting migraines) or abortive in action (reduces symptoms of migraine). You need to work out with your doctor to find better medication that fits your condition. The type of preventive migraine medication is used based on the symptoms that associate with the migraine pain.
Preventive medications can be prescribed by your doctor based upon the symptoms that associate with your migraine pain. Preventive medication is deployed to reduce the frequency, duration and severity of the migraines and to increase the effectiveness medication used to tackle migraine pain.
Preventive medications are not used in case you cannot tolerate side effects or health conditions prevent you from adapting to preventive medications. Preventive medications are recommended for people having more than four attacks of migraine per month or you get headaches for more than 12 hours time duration or headaches that disturb your daily routine.
The possible preventive therapy in migraine includes use of antidepressants (cure depression), calcium channel blockers (Cure high blood pressure and prevent narrowing of blood vessels), anticonvulsants (prevent seizures), beta blockers (which relax blood vessels) and NSAIDS (anti-inflammatory). The symptoms of nausea or vomiting can be address by use of antiemetic (cure vomiting and nausea.).
US FDA in 2010, approved Botox for the preventive treatment of chronic migraines. Botox (botulinum toxin A) injections can be used in people with long-term migraine headaches (at-least 15instances of migraine/month with duration of 4 hours or more per day). It is believed that Botox inhibits the release of chemicals involved in the transmission of pain signals during migraine attack.
## But should be followed under strict Doctor consultation.
Preventive treatment in migraine may include Blood pressure drugs, Antidepressants, Muscle relaxants, Anti-seizure drugs, Relaxation and biofeedback techniques, Avoidance of certain foods and use of Cefaly, a small headband device that gives electrical impulses on the skin at the forehead. This stimulates a nerve associated with migraine headaches.
The choice of treatment can be influenced to varying degrees by the particular pattern of migraine, patient co-morbidity (set of medical conditions that are present together), tolerability, teratogenecity (ability to cause developmental anomalies), potential side effects, ease of use, and patient choice.
You can choose life style modifications to take proper rest, get enough sleep and avoid stress. Try muscle relaxation exercises that may help reduce the pain of a migraine headache. Warm up slowly as sudden increase in excursion can lead to migraine pain.
In women with migraine higher estrogen levels can lead to migraine pain. Your doctor can advise you to reduce estrogen level through therapy (birth control pills and hormone replacement therapy) to reduce the occurrences of migraine pain.
Biofeedback through special equipment trains you to monitor physical and contain responses to stress or muscle tension.
Your physician can advise to reduce your caffeine, alcohol and stop smoking to avoid migraine pain.
# Pls. do not try any preventive measure as written in tbis article if you are not sure about your body type, health and other health related factors. The above prevetive suggestion are made to help you. Hence, only try under doctor consutation.