How testosterone deficiency affect diabetes and other metabolic disorder in men?
Testosterone is a key male sex hormone, very essential for development of body growth and masculine characteristics in men. Testosterone’s main function is to promote proper development and functioning of primary reproductive tissues in man’s body such as testis, prostate, seminal vesicles, epididymis and penis. It also promotes man’s sex drive (libido) and other development of sexual characteristics e.g. body and facial hair growth, growth of testes and man’s genital organs. This hormone also helps in development of healthy growth of bone and muscle tissues in men. As testosterone hormone plays key role in overall development of men health, its deficiency can lead to various mild and chronic health related problems in men which are discussed in below section in detail.
How testosterone deficiency affect diabetes and other metabolic disorder
Scientists have recognised that there is clear association between low levels of testosterone and type 2 diabetes mellitus in men. As we know in men, testosterone sex hormone is primarily synthesized by Leydig cells of testes, when Leydig cells are stimulated by pituitary gland which in turn produces a hormone called as luteinising hormone (LH). Therefor if either the function of pituitary gland or testes get distorted, the testosterone production falls leading to the hypogonadism syndrome.
And in diabetes, insulin hormone which is produced by pancreas falls down or does not function properly, blood glucose level increases, leading to type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus.
Therefore, low testosterone in body is usually a risk factor for diabetes as testosterone level adversely affect body fat composition, transport of glucose to cell and the way in which body’s cell uses testosterone.
It is believed that the association of hypogonadism with diabetes is interdependent. This is because when the blood glucose level increase than normal, it affects production of LH hormone from pituitary gland. And as testosterone sex hormone is only produce in presence of adequate concentration of LH hormone in body, this lead to its reduction.
Studies have shown therefore the proportion of men having type 2 diabetes mellitus and hypogonadism increases with age in men. Reports have clearly indicated 20-64% of men with testosterone deficiency also suffer from type 2 diabetes.
It was also proved in a population based study low testosterone level is mainly associated with type 2 diabetes and other metabolic syndrome. It was reported through this study that the difference in male sex hormone (testosterone) between a men having diabetes was lower than those without diabetes.
The study also showed that along with having strong effect on sugar level in blood, hypogonadism is linked to diabetes via bidirectional relationship with visceral fat, bone mass and muscle strength. Therefore it is found that testosterone therapy in men not only shows positive effect on his sugar level but also favour in other metabolic processes too.
Researchers indicated that there is association between free testosterone in body with glucose levels, insulin resistance and abdominal obesity in men.