Allergies occur in an individual when body’s immune defense system over-react to presence of allergen in body. On exposure to an allergen, the body responds putting a blockage to the allergen presence. This triggers an immune response in the body to rescue body from the presence of allergen. An Antibody called IgE (immunoglobulin E), is produced as a reaction that attaches to the surface of mast cells. The attachment of IgE to mast cells causes the release of various substances, including histamine, which cause inflammation known as allergy symptoms. An allergy is potentially life-threatening emergency that require immediate medical attention. A patient suffering from serious allergic reaction may have difficulty in breathing, throat swelling, skin redness or itching, and an irregular heartbeat or palpitations. Epinephrine injection is recommended care is serious allergic reactions termed as extreme anaphalytic shock. Common list of allergen include animal dander dust, grass & weed pollen, mould, mildew, tree pollen. The Common symptom of allergies includes itchy, watery or red eyes, runny nose, sneezing, itchy throat, nose, roof of the mouth and congestion. Based on duration of infection, allergies are classified as seasonal outdoor allergies (seasonal allergic rhinitis) and persistent year round allergies (perennial allergic rhinitis). The allergies are developed at early development age, during early childhood or puberty. Allergies varies from person to person, some people are allergic to one specific allergen while another person may be allergic to different set of allergen. The genetic tendencies in allergic reactions are documented, with allergies present in either or both parents being transferred to offspring as well.
Controlling dust mites, animal dander, house dust, exposure to pollen and mold spores can help relieve and prevent allergy symptoms. Preventive care for indoor allergens includes maintaining cleanliness and personnel hygiene. Use of dust mask while dusting is best preventive care from allergen potency. Regular dusting with damp cloth should be done to keep house dust and mite free. Vacuum cleaner used in dusting should be fitted with a HEPA filter. Wash bedding linens in hot water to remove the dust particles. Keep the windows closed during allergy seasons to prevent pollen and other air born allergen from entering your home environment. Make note to regularly clean out air filters and air ducts. Closed-in spaces such as closets, basements, and especially bathrooms should be sanitized periodically to contain/reduce presence of mould in home environment. Using dehumidifier or air conditioner controls moisture & humidity and lightens your mood. Reducing the number of indoor plants in your home contains source of mildew at your home. Use hypoallergenic or allergen-impermeable covers on mattresses and pillows to contain allergen in your living space.
Strictly adhere to a “safety first” approach for treating allergies. Preventive medication in allergies include the use of Anticholinergics (used to relieve a runny nose associated with allergies), Nasal decongestants (provide temporary relief from congestion), anti-histamines (provides relieve from sneezing, nasal itchiness and runny nose), corticosteroids (provides relief in allergic rhinitis from sneezing, congestion, runny nose, and itching), Mast cell stabilizers (help in nasal itchiness, runny nose and sneezing). Notably, eye drops in various category-- Antihistamine eye drops , mast cell stabilizers and Decongestant eye drops are used in eye allergies to provide relief of ocular symptoms. The oral allergy medications include leukotriene receptor antagonists (montelukast) that work by blocking leukotrienes released in the body during an allergic response. Use an over-night medication product that has night treatment effect in your sleep hours and caters to your allergy symptoms. Use of preventive medication should be preceded with a discussion with physician on side –effects, dose, treatment duration, drug reactions and efficacy of the treatment. Further your health visit to your physician for allergies, should discuss the untreated allergic breakouts, side effect of allergy medications, effect of allergic symptoms on your daily life and candidature for immunotherapy (allergy shoots) to treat allergy.
It pays to know your triggers for allergies, attempt to minimize your exposure to your known allergy triggers. Preventive care can help you beat allergens and maintain homeostasis.